Modern Technologies & Violence in Youngsters
Modern technologies have significant mental impact rather than old technologies that possibly having impact on children’s behaviours. Parents, teachers, politicians and researchers are interested in the many ways that these technologies might affect the overall development, and health of children. New media technologies and a number of important studies were conducted in the 2000’s on the impact of children’s intellectual development, and various aspects of using such technologies. This bibliography is aimed to organize understanding the change that took place by using these technologies, and to explore the conversion in children’s behaviour.
Media and Youth, A Developmental Perspective, By Steven J. Kirsh.
This book is aimed to write a broad review, critical thinking of research, and theoretical literature related to media impacts on children and adolescents, with a clear picture of their development strategy.
Steven J. Kirsh gave a unique method to estimate the role of development in media base technology’s effects research, to understand the gap between children and media. Several tools of media, including use of internet are discussed for a complete view of the subject of development. Developmental points of interest are highlighted at the end of each section to emphasize the importance of development in media effects researches. Children’s cognitive, social, and emotional abilities from pre-school to adolescence are well incorporated into the text to a greater intelligibility.
The author has varied opinions on the phenomenon and support to both sides as negative and positive note that children are more likely to come across potentially harmful material that is often user generated content. Other than the contextual review of the phenomenon; this book helps to learn the effect of modern technologies, and to measure the attitude, and habits of children, who are the frequent user of new modern technologies and gadgets.
As Kirsh described in chapter 10 that, “both verbal, and physical forms of aggression involve altercations that take place in person, and are thus direct in nature. In contrast, relational aggression can be either direct or indirect. In this latter form of aggression, direct confrontations do not occur; rather, the victimization takes place in a circuitous manner, through another person or with the aid of media.” (e.g., spreading a rumor on the Internet).
Kirsh, J. S. (2010). Media and Youth a Development Perspective. Chichester: Blackwell publishing.
Television and its Viewers, Cultivation Theory and Research, By James Shanahan and Michael Morgan.
The book depicts detailed explanation and investigates the relationship between revelation to television and thinking about the world. James Shanahan and Michael Morgan, examine cultivation through detailed theoretical and past explication, crucial assessments of methodology, and an inclusive meta-analysis of twenty years of experiential results. Book argues about sweeping historical view of television as a technology, and as an institution. Furthermore, study looks forward as well as back, to the development of cultivation research in a new media environment and emphasises that cultivation theory offers a unique and valuable perspective on the role of television in twentieth-century social life especially on children.
This idea has provided and usable from “New” New Media as this chapter suggests “New Media” likewise mobile, and video games consoles have changed media structures, and network ratings, but not the conditions under which cultivation usually occurs. Usually public access to these media remains negligible. But the development of more radically new technologies offers a different array of questions. This chapter provides a new angel of thinking about the internet, online services, mobile phone, computer games, video games, and a host of other user-interactive information services present a different kind of challenge to the ‘hegemony’ of the existing media structure. It can be said that ‘the higher level of involvement may mean that violence in computer games has a much bigger impact than violence on television’ and this has been well illustrated in this chapter.
Shanahan, J. & Morgan, M. (2004). Television and its Viewers Cultivation Theory and Research. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
The Handbook of New Media, Edited by A. Lievrouw and Sonia Livingstone.
The revised edition of this book is the best of its hardback edition. This book evaluates boundaries of new media research and has different participatory essays by editors which cover different areas of new media researches and its effects. Chapter 3 of the book, children and new media-written by David Buckingham has useful text regarding the children issues. The overall aim of this paper is to propose an understanding of the new media nature in totality. The emerging of new technologies have participated in children’s’ learning perspective as well, in spite of this when children use these kind of technologies (mobile phones with applications, and having internet connection with Wi-Fi access) their attitude change; as Lievrouw & Livingstone (2006) described that new communication technologies are considered for tremendous positive potential difference, especially for learning; it is often seen to be destructive; in contrast, to those sensed to the most at risk. In the both instances it is children or more accurately, the idea of childhood which is the vehicle for many of these ambitions, and fears.
As David Buckingham (2006) notably described it precisely that games playing is to be highly gendered action, which strengthen their traditional formulaic conception, and negative role models, and encourage male violence over women in contemporary world.
Lievrouw, A. L. & Livingston, S. (eds.) (2006). The Handbook of New Media. London: Sage publications.
Violence on Television, Distribution, Form, context, and themes, By Barrie Gunter, Jackie Harrison, Maggie Wykes.
There has been a number of studies conducted about ‘violence on television’ and technologies of the new media for the past 10 years on the impact of children’s overall development, including the intellectual one, and various aspects of using such technologies. As TV violence has repeatedly been identified as a significant causal agent in relation to the prevalence of crime, and violence in our societies. Critics accuse the medium of presenting excessive quantities of violence, to the extent and level where it is virtually not possible for the viewers to avoid it.
The author tried to evaluate the findings of the largest British study of such violence on TV ever undertaken. The study has been carried out at the same time as similar industry sponsored researches in other parts of the world like United States, and one chapter compares findings from Britain and the U.S.A.
Furthermore, the book concludes that it is misleading to accuse all broadcasters of presenting excessive quantities, and levels of violence in their schedules and not to deny the problematic portrayals were also found. But the most violent, horrific and graphic scenes of violence generally contained within broadcasts available on a subscription basis and also in programs shown at different times, when few children were expected to be available and watching. The book provides the factual analysis that broadcasters were meeting their obligations under their national regulatory codes of practice.
It serves as guidance for researchers, academics, students, political enthusiast to dig out more information on violence on children especially in chapter 7 were authors findings indicate debates ‘that television is not bad for children’, it has also shown that television can, and does, influence children to some extent. The author has provided the readers with many more findings in the book.
Gunter, B., Harrison, J. & Wykes, M. (2003). Violence on Television, Distribution, Form, context, and themes. New Jersey, London: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, Publishers.
Computers, Phones, and the Internet: Domesticating Information Technology, By Robert Kraut, Malcolm Brynin, Sara Kiesler.
The book deals with the interaction between human and the technology and to determine what social impact of such technology has. The chapter of the book that deals with it tries to explore and understand how everyday use of mobile phones, computers, and the Internet has changing impact on the lives of its users and those who interact with them. The book did explore rather than relying on speculation, on the possibilities, which are usually frequent in the technology, and new media, brings empirical evidence to bear on various questions related to the subject. Also addresses the factors that have domestic or social effect, and that are measurable. The book outline hurdles in this chapter before going on to describe the contribution to make it understand the social impact of new technologies on human lives.
In realism, people choose the technologies whose supposed impact can be assessed. As a result, people’s choices have an impact on how the technology is used, though various methods like market feedback, the social change and technological impact on the lives of the people that is available can be used. Such circumstances are condescending the rationale for the experiments, as intervention of such an adoption, and usage of a technology is not exogenous events that can be easily controlled. These involvements are controlled by the users of these technologies. The book also emphasises that it is empirically not possible to differentiate the changes that are associated with use of a technology from changes that are endogenous that are caused by the users in choosing a particular technology.
Kraut. R, Brynin. M, & Kiesler, S. (eds.) (2006). Computers, Phones, and the Internet: Domesticating Information Technology. US: Oxford University Press.
Young People and New Media By Sonia Livingstone
The book presents the analytical explanation of recent researches on the usability of internet and associated risks, safety and literacy and harmful effects of the internet which were conducted by Sonia Livingstone, Haddon, L. Görzig, A. and Ólafsson, K. (2011), and many other researches of effects of video games impacts, conducted by Dill & Dill, 1998; Griffiths, 1999; Anderson & Dill, 2000; Sherry, 2001. These researches explored significant difference in experience ranging from the 9-10 years old children up-to 15-16 years surveyed. Usage of internet as commonly available now with cellular services might itself be risky for the children they surveyed. There are several other associated risks with the technology orientation for children as during the interaction with different available means such as mobile, internet or video games, they can get in to incidental learning process or intensity of message or content might influence their learning, attitude and general conduct. The book also has varied opinions on the phenomenon and support to both sides as negative and positive note that children are more likely to come across potentially harmful user generated content (such as hate and suicide sites) and, less strongly, personal data misuse as they get older. At the same time better equipped to deal with online risks.
The author in chapter titled ‘A dual focus on young people and new media’ argues that media cantered move towards has led to the negligence what social impact technology has on the behaviour of the children. For this reason, ‘media environment’ is more emphasised in the book. There are various striking facts in society, although adamant about being holds a very high degree of appreciation for the modern technologies. These technologies have developed very deep root in our society. These technologies may have subtle and severe affect by depicting digital culture. Book reveals that modern technologies are influencing the behaviour of children through mobile phone, internet and video games.
Livingstone, S. (2002). Young People and New Media. London:Sage Publications.
The educational and social impact of new technologies on young people in Britain
This website gives comprehensive analysis of the impact of new technologies on the youngsters particularly in Britain. It follows the seminars organised jointly by the University of Oxford’s Department of Education (Chris Davies and John Coleman) and LSE’s Department of Media and Communications (Sonia Livingstone).
It gives a platform for the researchers to combine knowledge of adolescent development, with the interest in new technologies, and a commitment to capacity building. Guided by the recognition that new technologies frequently are seen as potentially harmful to young people, the positive approach often is not recognised.
‘The educational and social impact of new technologies on young people in Britain’. Primarily brings together academics, policy makers and practitioners in order to consider the ‘contexts’ and ‘consequences’ of use of new information, and technology.
Usually, technologies are considered as negative entities for children and young people, the web explores it with a particular focus on the implications on technological change on formal and informal education.
Ofcom and children’s programmes
The web sites explore the change to children’s programming specifically to ITV. As, ‘ITV proposed to reduce the amount of programmes shown on ITV1 from around four hours on average per week (plus an hour per week of children’s films) to two hours per week (plus an hour per week of films) in 2008. Sub-genres of pre-school, factual and drama would continue in the mix; ITV also stated that levels of commissioned programmes would remain “significant”’. It draws attention to the revenue generated underperformance of children’s programmes. It concluded that this represents a ‘significant change’,
Although declining, a momentous number of children remain dependent on analogue TV, and while Children’s Programming report acknowledged the commercial pressures, it should be noted that these apply across a number of programme genres rather than to children’s programming alone. It concludes that – ‘Ofcom also expressed the opinion that the balance of originally produced and commissioned programmes, first-run originations, pre-school, factual and drama should similarly be maintained’.