K.D.Sakkunthala Panditharathne.(Student No: 0926295)

Assignment 1

This article is going to talk about the "Computer Games".

1.Flew, T.(2005), New Media: An Introduction-Second Edition, Oxford University Press, Oxford.

This is the book, which I commence my assignment in which I can take some informations regarding ‘Multimedia and Computer Games’. The Author of the book is Terry Flew. The book by its contents presents all areas of multimedia. Further he describes how multimedia affects to the computer games. He explains the interpretation of the new media. The new media is cultural technologies, virtual cultures, digital media, and games etc.
Furthermore he suggests texts which can be seen in two loose categories. They are ‘linear’ and ‘emergent’. Terry says that 'linear games' are reasonably highly structured and the options offered to a player are limited and the trajectory of a player through the game environment follows a set pathway. The other the 'emergent games' are becoming increasingly popular as a style of a game.
The Industry of games is currently faced with choices about how much they embrace the player creators or mod-communities as part of their structure. Some are openly encouraging of such communities, releasing the source code and tools for creating contents. He argues that some issues are not restricted to games, but are indicators of structural changes that give rise to broad-scale challenges to existing regimes of the management and regulation of media. Terry Flew describes that the games industry of today is characterised by a complex and recursive game development value chain. Under the ‘game culture’ he describes that this context of play is one of the most important factors in determining the gendering of games. The game world rather than being completely separate from the ‘real world’ is embedded in a real world context which determines game experience.
This book gives very important details to write this assignment regarding ‘multimedia and computer games’. Under this topic Terry Flew describes games history, games industry, game culture and its structural changes.

2.Wise Richard,(2000), Multimedia: A Critical introduction,Roultedge, London.

This book is very interesting and Author in this book is Richard Wise. The details of this book represents how multimedia effects to the computer games. Richard Wise describes that how it creates the personal computer market. He says that at this point commercialism has replaced radical idealism in the history of multimedia. Further Richard describes in step by step, what is the first computer and how it was made, what are the advantages that people obtained from it, and how are the other computers increased their qualities and usefulness etc.
Furthermore he argues that the games industry is quick to exploit the multimedia potential of the microchip with arcade games. On the other hand Richard Wise describes about the birth of multimedia, the evolution of network multimedia, the computer counter-culture, capital and multimedia and others. Again he suggests that the key concept and technology behind multimedia is Digitisation. Because multimedia machines have the capacity to manipulate symbols according to predetermined rules which they can emulate all existing media forms. Multimedia has taken a symbolic value in discourses of the future of civilisation.
The central aim of this book is to examine technologies from cultural and social perspectives. It concludes by examining the ideological implications of multimedia and its functions and purposes in civic life.
Richard Wise suggests that a number of different political, economic, cultural and technological forces have contributed to the development of multimedia. The technical elements which make multimedia possible are each developed by different agencies for different purposes. The history of multimedia may be seen as a reciprocal relationship between three institutions. They are the state through its military and intelligence agencies, the computer and media industries and various cultural elements.
This book is very useful to my assignment, because it explains about the game industry, about the first game and, how it begins and many more.

3.Justine Cassel and Henry Jenkins (1998), From Barbie to Mortal Combat- Gender and Computer Games, Massachusetts Institute of Technology,London.

This book is very important for the study of ‘multimedia and computer games’. Justine Cassel and Henry Jenkins who are the authors of this Book try to say so many things regarding this topic. In acknowledgement, they say that this book arouse out of a one-day symposium on gender and computer games, sponsored by women’s studies at MIT. Their original intention was to gather industry representatives and academies in one place to discuss the topic of computer games for girls. The authors describe that there are two approaches to feminist. First is that they concentrate on the representation of women in computer games, both in their cultural representation and the proportional representation of women in computer game companies. The second sense is that they are feminist researches which come from belief that equity between boys and girls, women and men, is a laudable goal.
This book represents feminism and computer games, computer games for girls, video games designs by girls and boys, variability and consistency of gender differences and many more. In this book they are fundamentally concerned with one relationship between sex and culture, between the girls and the form of popular culture known as computer games.
Although the authors try to say the meaning of computer games, the authors argue that there are various kinds of computer games and many ways to group them. In the game industry five major types of games are distinguished. They are sports, role-playing, action, strategy and simulation.
This book is very helpful to write my assignment because, it describes the meaning of computer game and how it changes gender wise to use computer games and many more other things.

4.Diane Carr, David Buckingham, Andrew Burn and Gareth Schott (2006), Computer Games- Text, Narrative and Play, Polity Press, Cambridge.

These authors introduce from their book, how to study computer games, defining of games genres, games and narrative, motivation and computer gaming and many more. They argues that the computer games have existed in some form for almost half a century and have been a mass-market commercial phenomenon for more than twenty-five years. They are a regular part of life for millions of people. The writers describe that how could we distinguish computer games from other forms of media which might have various implications. Different interest groups are naturally motivated to highlight those aspects of computer games that reflect to the best of their own speciality, preoccupations or agenda.
The authors describe that the economically games are one of the most rapidly expanding sectors of the cultural industries. They give some examples to this. They argue that the popularity of computer games frequently reinforces a generational rhetoric that is characteristic of popular discussion of young people and new media. According to these authors, games of today are deeply enmeshed in the ‘convergence’ that characterizes modern media.
They argue that the current enthusiasm for using computer games in education is also indicative of this broader significance. Many educators are now looking at games as a potential means of re-engaging disattached learners and of exploiting the apparent benefits of ‘interactive’ technology. Further these authors describe the difference between ‘computer game’ and ‘video game’.
This book is very useful in writing my assignment regarding ‘multimedia and computer games’ because it describes ‘why we study computer games?’

5.Jim Thompson, Barnaby Burbank Green and Nic Cusworth (2007), The Computer Game Design Course-Principles, Practices and Techniques for the aspiring game Designer, China.

This book is very colourful and there are lot of pictures to describe some computer games designs. The contents of this book introduces about designing theory history, game structure types, case studies, design process, design production and many more.
According to the authors, the computer game design course is written with three main aims. They are:
• To provide an insight into one of the biggest entertainment industries in the world. Globally, the computer game market is worth of billions of dollars.
• To describe the stages involved in developing a game concept, using industry examples and also to introduce gaming terminology. This will provide the necessary basic knowledge to further an understanding of games and their development.
• To provide practical exercises that require some of the skills and techniques necessary to become a computer game designer.
Furthermore, the authors argue that the games industry is a rapidly developing phenomenon and technological innovation which sees a continual change in the devices of people to use to play games. As the market develops, players become more sophisticated and the types of game they play are ever changing. They appreciate the Internet because there are plenty of activities on the fringe of game development, such as browser games and user-developed modifications and additions to game.
Furthermore the authors describe the beginning of game play. According to the authors mankind has been playing games since the beginning of historical records. One of the known games is an ancient Egyptian game called ‘senet’, which archaeological evidence dates as early as 3500B.C.
This book is very important to write my assignment because, it describes the beginning of the game play and how it increased into modern game play at today.

6.Fred T. Hofstetter (2001), Multimedia Literacy-Third Edition, Quebecor Printing Book Group, Dubuque.

This book presents so many areas in multimedia. It describes what is the multimedia, why is multimedia important, how multimedia changes the world, how fast is multimedia growing and many more. According to Fred T. Hofstetter, who is the Author of this book multimedia is the buzzword of the decade. Like most buzzwords, it has been used in many contexts. We find it on the covers of books, magazines, CD-ROMs, video games and movies. By this it is used in advertising shoes, hair styles, drugs, cars, computers, soft drinks, kitchen floors, vacations, airplanes, televisions, telephones, houses, newspapers, Olympic games, shopping malls etc. Sometimes the term is used to add hype to products that have nothing to do with multimedia.
The author describe that the multimedia is the use of a computer to present and combined texts, graphics, audio and video with links and tools that let the user navigate, interact, create and communicate. Furthermore, Fred describes that there are four components which are essential to multimedia.
• There must be a computer to co-ordinate what you see and hear, and interact with you.
• There must be links that connect the information.
• There must be navigational tools that let you traverse the web of connected information.
• There must be ways for you to gather process and communicate your own information and ideas.
Furthermore he suggests that multimedia is fast emerging as a basic skill that will be as important to life in the twenty-first century as reading now. In fact, multimedia is changing the nature of reading itself. The writer gives some examples as to why is multimedia important and he draws some graphics to explain this.
This book is also very important to write my assignment because it describes so many important things about the multimedia with some examples and graphics.

7. Frans Mayra (2008), An Introduction to Games Studies-Games in Culture, SAGE Publication Limited, London.

This book is with regard to an introduction to game studies. There are so many chapters with regard to various games in this book. The concept of this book is to describe what is game studies, the meaning in games, how game culture enter in to the new millennium, and what are the games in history etc. According to Frans Mayra who is the author of this book playing games can be interesting and fun, and also challenging in many ways and game studies share the same characteristics. This is the text of game studies, which is a new field of study focussing on games, particularly in their different digital forms. This book is also designed to be used as a companion piece in an introductory course of game studies and to facilitate that use, as well as self-study. At the end of each chapter there are concluding chapter summaries and a few sample assignments, with notes on related methodologies.
The structure of the book is both conceptually and historically organized. According to the author games studies are a new academic field and interdisciplinary field of learning, which focus on games playing and related phenomena. Its recent rise is linked with the emergence of digital games as a cultural force, but it is not restricted to any technology or medium.
Frans Mayra describes that there are several disciplines and approaches which have contributed to the study of games, ranging from history and anthropology to psychology, sociology, educational sciences, computer science and lately particularly literacy and art studies. Also this author describes. the meaning of games.
This book is very helpful to write my assignment because, it explains what the game study and how it effects to the society.

8. Jon Dovey and Helen W. Kennedy (2006), Game Cultures-Computer Games as New Media, Open University Press, England.

This book is very important to study the culture of computer games. Jon Dovey and Helen W. Kennedy represent how to study computer games, technology and culture about the computer games, computer game as a media text and many more. They describe that the computer games industry is the most established of all sectors of the emergent new media landscape. It now commands a mass main stream market. It is substantially, capitalized and have survived the ‘boom and the bust’ cycle of new technology businesses. This book introduces some of the ways in which we might begin to study computer games culture by looking at its mass market as it has developed in the past ten years. They argue that the games have been produced by very particular kinds of people who have developed very particular cultures. Furthermore the authors argue whether a computer game could be treated as a text.
The authors suggest that if we want to understand as to where our media culture is going, we need to understand where it is coming from. They say by that, we can easily understand about the media culture.
This book is very helpful to peruse my assignment because it represents the computer games technology very clearly. Therefore I could get information from this book as how to study computer games and how it effects to multimedia.


Esam Fageeh 1027942

The books covered in this article are all relevant as they explore a different aspect of gaming technology. Flew’s book for instance gives an overview of multimedia before relating it to the gaming technology. The article acknowledges the importance of this book as it covers “the history, industry, culture and structural changes involved in computer games”.
Richard’s book takes as further back as it gives a history of computers. Richard (2000) explains how game developers are using the concept of merging macromedia with micro chip to develop more intelligent games. Henry Jenkins (1998)’s book introduces another angle to gaming; gender. To relate computer games to other aspects of life such as education, economy and culture, the article has analyzed the book Computer Games- Text, Narrative and Play, Polity Press, Cambridge. The article concludes by examining a book that is more concerned with the design and structure of these games. Multimedia Literacy-Third Edition and An Introduction to Games Studies-Games in Culture are the books that the articles uses to explore the trends and the way forward of computers games. The article winds up by analyzing Game Cultures-Computer Games as New Media which is an overview of the computer games topic.

Assignment 2

Part 01

Computer Games


I have selected this topic to bring the attention to the quick improvement made to computer games in the 21st century. In 1970 computer games were born as a little child and within three decades it has been distributed to various avenues in the world like a matured, well balanced, elderly person. Because of that, computer games are suitable to the small child up to the matured elderly person. Computer games improve a person with qualities of quick thinking, common sense and sudden responding.
However, the word 'Computer Games' is familiar to us with the improvement of Science and Technology. It is very useful to avoid mental distress and to use as an entertainment in leisure times.

What is Multimedia?

Hofstetter described multimedia as like this;

“Multimedia is the use of computer to present and combine text, graphics, audio and video with links and tools that let the user navigate, interact, create and communicate.” (Hofstetter, F.T., 2001:2)

According to this definition there are four main keys to use the multimedia.
1. A computer should coordinate what you see and hear and affect each other.
2. It should be a link to connect the information.
3. It should have direct tools to extend across the web of connected information.
4. Should be a path to gather process and communicate information and ideas. (Hofstetter, F.T., 2001,2-3)

Anyway multimedia is very helpful to extend information to the wide area. When we describe this in an economical side, it is very important to develop the business market.

What is a computer game?

According to Diane Carr (2006) games can be divided into six categories. They are:
• Games are based on rules.
• Games have variable, quantifiable outcomes.
• Different values (positive or negative) are assigned to these outcomes.
• The player is emotionally ‘attached’ to the outcome.
• They play invests to effort to achieve the desired outcome.
• Games have negotiable consequences for real life.

Computer games are played using by mouse, the keys of the key board of a computer in response to various kinds of pictures on the computer screen.

Furthermore, there are several behaviours and approaches which have contributed to the game studies. They are: psychology, sociology, educational sciences, computer sciences, and literacy and art studies.

How multimedia effects to the computer games?

Multimedia is a strong foundation to computer games. It is very important to all human beings in the 21st century, when we are going to the global village.

Nobody can play any computer game without multimedia since multimedia supports to develop the computer games.

History of Game

Richard Wise (2000) described that the games industry was profit because of the microchip with arcade games. These games completely based with multimedia. The first most successful game was ‘pong’ which was introduced in 1972. Some other games as ‘Space Invaders’, ‘Lunar Lander’ and ‘Asteroids’ come after 1970s.During the period of 1980 to 1990, microchips was developed with power and speed. Then, arcade games such as ‘Firefox’ and ‘Dragon’s Lair’ began to increase.

By the late 1990s, the console based games industry was divided into four categories. They are:

• Games producers
• Games distributors
• Publishers
• Games hardware producers

Especially, Microsoft and Sony companies were involved to the game industry. They started to give access to all forms of information and entertainment to come out with broadband Internet environment.
The early 2000s is the most important year to developing online games or massive multiplayer online games (MMOGs). ‘Ultima online’ was launched in October 1997, and by early 2001 it had almost 250,000 subscribers. (Flew. T., 2005: 104-5)

Decades of computer games.

There are three decades of computer games.



1970 is the most important year for political and social changes. At that time economical status and technological advances were basically changed the lifestyles of a few million people. Because of that every man wanted a change. In spite of fact that, cold war, moon trips, Watergate, rise of pop and rock cultures have been effected to the popular culture, as a result if video games. The world famous first game ‘Pong’ (1972) and ‘Space Invaders’ (1978) are also introduced in this decade. (Mayra, F., 2008:58)



From 1970 to 1980 in United States, people had more leisure time than before 1970s. So, people wanted to spend more time for their entertainment. Because of that the entertainment industry became larger into number of quantity in various kinds of media, toys, sports and other appearances. It began to have a very strong manner and it effected for economical and cultural terms in people’s lives. In this situation digital games were immediately growing with media technology. ‘Pac-Man’ (1980), ‘Donkey Kong’ (1981), ‘Ultima IV: Quest of the Avatar’ (1985) are some of the examples for this games in 1980s. (Mayra, F., 2005:68)


1990s- (including some developments from the early years of the new millennium)

In 1990s game industry became a ‘mature industry’ because of the new economy. As a result of this, game industry was developed with high expectations.
Frans Mayra (2008) described that the history of moral panics with digital games started on 20th April, 1999.Furthermore he explains this by giving two examples. Two teenage students entered Columbine High School in Colorado with guns and they killed 15 people including themselves and wounded to 23 others. After that in 2002 another student at the Johannes Gutenberg School in Germany killed 17 and wounded 10 people. Also in that shooting the student committed suicide in the end. For both cases digital games were blamed as the killers which were known to be active gamers. Nevertheless, Frans Mayra argued that there is no evidence to tell relationship between game playing and violent behaviour.
Nowadays, most countries restrict access to various games through legislation based on the age limit. (Mayra, F., 2008:90-91)

Future of Computer Games

1. A few time periods has passed from the inception of Computer Games which occurred in the decade of 1970 s. But it has obtained a large improvement. It has taken the wide support of science and technology in 21st century and has made a huge revolution by distributing computer games to the every section of the world.

2. The directions of the game industry are still undecided. Most of the companies identified value of the game studies to modern communities and they tried to get involved in this to their production models. They believe that when they are using the game community to their companies it will be more profitable and productive to increase their goods and services.

3. For the future, games can be involved to the advertisements to market or to publish services and goods. Because game culture is common to all society. So, any person would like to watch it and can buy their goods easily and more productively.

4. Sometimes computer games can be engaged in solving problems. . How can computer games do that? It can give some alternatives to that as a reality game. It should be considered a positive sign for the future and viability of game cultures that such alternatives exist.

5. Computer games can be arranged as a fun and as a social experiment. Sometimes it will be more successful than the other entertainment programmes. We can arrange these programmes less expensively and in a more interesting way.


I have tried to give a wide knowledge with regard to the computer game within the limitation of my words and drawing attention to various sections within the topic.
I believe that by reading the headings of computer games, how it affected to the multimedia, three decades and its future, a person can understand computer games even if he had not gained a previous knowledge with regard to same.
However, computer games are the familiar word to us with the improvement of science and technology. It is very useful to avoid mental distress and to use as an entertainment the leisure times.


• Flew, T., (2005), New Media-An Introduction-2nd Edition, Oxford University Press, Oxford.
• Wise, R., (2000), Multimedia-A critical introduction, Rutledge, London.
• Cassell, J. And Jenkins, H., (1998), From Barbie to mortal combat-Gender and computer games, Massachusetts Institute of Technology.
• Carr, D. Buckingham, D., Burn, A. And Schott, G. (2006), Computer games-Text, Narrative and play, Polity Press, Cambridge.
• Thompson, J., Green, B.B. and Cusworth N (2007), The computer games design course- Principles, practices and techniques for the aspiring game designer, China.
• Hofsteffer, F.T., (2001), Multimedia literacy- 3rd Edition, Quebecor printing book group, Dubuque.
• Mayra, F., (2008), An introduction to game studies-Games in culture, SAGE publication limited, London.
• Dovey J. And Kennedy H.W.., (2006), Game cultures-Computer games as new media, Open University press, England.

Part 02

In this Assignment I am trying to give my comments and/or edits from wikis of three students. These three students discuss about the following areas.

1) History and development of the Internet. (Student Number- 1023230)
2) Introducing Face Book. (Student Number- 1033570)
3) Understandings and challenges of citizen journalism. (student Number-1019550)

Please refer their wiki pages (comments) for further information.


Lyubitsa Lukanova (№ 1030402)

- Topic
Mrs. Panditharathne has chosen very interesting and modern topic – the computer games. Still the format of the wiki does not presuppose deep enough research in this field.
- Bibliography
The chosen list of books is updated and covers various dimensions of the topic. Her reviews are very informative, giving some valuable interpretation of the content. Nevertheless it must be mentioned that there are no web sites in the bibliography, neither other kinds of resources. Having in mind the nature of the topic, this fact is a little bit embarrassing and embraces the question about the overall understanding of the phenomenon of the computer games.
- Approach
Mrs. Panditharathne has approached the main aspects of the topic, emphasizing on their historical development. In spite of that she has not broached such important matters as the psychological dimension, or the gender issues. The text disposes with enough and well selected references.
- Conclusions
Some interesting and well motivated suppositions about the future of computer games are expressed.
- Organization
As a whole the information is very well organized. Table of contents which is both informative and useful is provided. The differences in the headings’ levels make the overall examination of the text very easy. Yet there are some details, which are not well represented – for example, a big title of the topic is missing and the numbers and their correspondent decades are in different lines.
- Spelling and grammar
Unfortunately, the use of spelling and grammar is not up to standard, which makes difficult perceiving of the text.

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