**Web 2.0: Implications for Business and Society **
ANDERSON, P., 2007.What is Web 2.0? Ideas, Technologies and Implications for Education. Feb 2007, [viewed April 25, 2011]. Available from: http://www.jisc.ac.uk/media/documents/techwatch/tsw0701b.pdf.
In this fairly comprehensive report, the author sets out to investigate the apparent embellishment of ideas, technologies behind Web 2.0 with a view to establishing if there is any substance to them. The publication then goes on to establish the underlying ideas and technologies; discussing the implications that Web 2.0 may have for the UK Higher and FurtherEducation sectors, focusing on the collection and preservation activities within the library institution.
The author establishes that Web 2.0 is much more than a set of technologies and services,but rather fundamentallyconsistsof powerful set of ideas that are affecting the way certain people or parties interact. In addition, the author acknowledges that the ideas in questionmay not necessarily be exclusive to Web 2.0 but rather demonstrate the‘powerof the network: the strange effects and topologies at the micro and macro level that a billion Internetusers produce’.
In discussing the impact of introducing Web 2.0 within the university library institution, the authors argue that a distinction is necessary between concerns about ‘user-centred change’ and the resulting service quality, and the applications derived from Web 2.0 concepts. The author also addresses important questions if for instance there is any significant difference between traditional Web content and Web 2.0 content whose features probably make it more challenging to gather and even preserve. Although the paper demonstrates the implications of Web 2.0 on the library institution throughanalysingthese questions within the powerful concepts of Web2.0, the impact on education is also articulated somewhat narrowly.
BARSKY, E. and GIUSTINI, D., 2008. Web 2.0 in Physical Therapy: A Practical Overview. Physiotherapy Canada, Summer, vol. 60, no. 3, pp. 207-214. Available from: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2792778/ ISSN 0300-0508; 0300-0508. DOI 10.3138/physio.60.3.207.
In this article, the authors give an overview of some of the practical applications of Web 2.0 tools such as blogs, Real Simple Syndication (RSS) feeds, wikis, social networks and podcasting when it comes to patient care, in this case physiotherapy. Each of these tool categories is briefly described and then some of the well-known examples of existing tool instances for each tool category identified and discussed.
The authors discuss some of the apparent changes in the wayphysical therapists acquire and process information or even interact with each other, and apply appropriate‘best practices’ in caring for their patients.The authors also note howthe Web, in its emerging form of Web 2.0 applications,offers an elaborate network for practitioners to openly, socially and freely traffic in relevant knowledge and information. It is in this light that the paper discusses the impact of emerging Web2.0 concepts and tools on the practice of physiotherapy. It also explores the possibility of employing these tools to enhance patient care.
Although the article might have provided a more comprehensive examination of employing popular Web 2.0 tools within a broader contest such as health care or patient care, the authors focus on the practical application of these tools within a fairly specialised area, physiotherapy, thus to some extent limiting the outlook of Web2.0’s potential. It is however worth noting that such a study of specialised applications may also underline the fluidity and flexibility of Web 2.0 concepts, technologies and tools.
BOULOS, M.N.K. and WHEELER, S., 2007. The Emerging Web 2.0 Social Software: An Enabling Suite of Sociable Technologies in Health and Health Care Education. Health Information and Libraries Journal, vol. 24, pp. 2-23 DOI 10.1111/j.1471-1842.2007.00701.x.
This paper demonstrates and documents the practical application of Web 2.0 concepts, tools and technologies within the health and health care education contexts, presenting them as ‘enablers’ for key participants in these contexts, whether they be health care and health care education organisations, professionals or even patients. The paper also introduces the emerging “Semantic Web” or Web 3.0 and goes on to discuss the potential of combining Web 2.0 and Web 3.0 to create the ultimate social and technology platform for active participation and collaboration.
On presenting a range of tools that seem to express potential for numerous healthcare and health care education applications, the authors caution that careful thought and assessment are still necessary if “best practice models” are to be developed for the practical use of inherent technologies to support “continuing medical education/professional development (CME/CPD)” as well as enhanceteaching, learning, and to strengthen the so called “communities of practice”.
The authors also insist that within the context of health and health care education, Web 2.0 tools and their potential applications need not only be promoted to create more awareness but also need to be examined and studied for practical use. The paper ultimately documents the basic argument that in practice, carers and their patients often desire information from health providers. At the same time, all three often need to actively interact. The authors argue for significant participation of patients through information exchange among themselves, within social platforms that should inevitably be afforded by their health providers.
GREENHOW, C., ROBELIA, B. and HUGHES, J.E., 2009. Learning, Teaching, and Scholarship in a Digital Age: Web 2.0 and Classroom Research: What Path should we Take Now?. Educational Researcher, May 1, vol. 38, no. 4, pp. 246-259 DOI. ISSN 0013-189X. DOI 10.3102/0013189X09336671.
In this article, the authors pursue their arguments by first discussing the aggregate and fundamental features that distinguish Web 2.0 from the traditional web within the context of how students make use of the Web. They also examine the unique competencies of Web 2.0 and the impact of youth tendencies while using it, on the learning and teaching experience
In this analysis, ‘learner participationand creativity’ and ‘online identity formation’, emergeas important subjectswhich inspirefurther investigation. The authors identify a necessity for research which is focused the daily use of Web2.0 and for the purpose of learning by students. It is in the context of these discussions that insights as to the impact of Web 2.0 and its inherent possibilities for studentship are offered.
The authors, in their closing arguments on the title question, proceed to speculatethat some of the emerging technologies such as social operating systems as well as cloud computing are well positioned to impact on education and research over the next ten years. The premise of the argument is that such technologies naturally increase and enhance creative participation.
Even though the authors believe in the assurances and challenges inherent in the discussed technologies and concepts forchanging the practice of education and research, they do caution researchers shouldmaintain the objectives of educational in the focus but at the same timebe open and curious aboutthe learning experience. The article indicates thatdeveloping research and establishment practices indicate the potential and challenges of Web 2.0 for learning andteaching.
MURUGESAN, S., 2007. Understanding Web 2.0. IT Professional, vol. 9, no. 4, pp. 34-41 DOI 10.1109/MITP.2007.78.
In this article, Murugesanestablishes the fundamental concepts of what Web 2.0 is; drawing the basic distinction from Web 1.0. The article attempts to analyse Web 1.0, the trends, and preceding technologies that led up to Web 2.0. In a nutshell, the author argues that Web 2.0 is not a single technology but a model of usage that combines with technology; an elaborate amalgam of various technologies, business strategies, and social trends, all of which integrate with their varying histories and backgrounds, to form the emerging all important and significantly more interactive internet platform. Some of the identified technology categories that make up Web 2.0 include: Blogs, Wikis, Really Simple Syndication (RSS), Mashups, and Tags - folksonomy and tag clouds.
Apart from systematically introducing the basic concepts, tools and technologies associated with Web 2.0 and its applications, the author also tempers the main arguments with a practical acknowledgement that developers and enthusiasts may eventually have to grapple with the classical dilemma between the fast and easy designs presented by Web 2.0, against the practical requirement for well designed and engineered applications; which must address the necessary challenges of achieving scalability, performance and security within the certain proliferation of Web 2.0’s applications.
ROLLETT, H., et al, 2007. The Web 2.0 Way of Learning with Technologies. International Journal of Learning Technology, vol. 3, pp. 87-107 DOI 10.1504/IJLT.2007.012368.
This paper first explains the background of Web 2.0 and then goes on to investigate its implications for transfer of knowledge in general. The authors discuss the particular use of Web 2.0 tools and technologies within the e-Learning context using brief sample scenarios.
The paper identifies some of the issues related to traditional eLearning ManagementSystems, and then relates the framework for knowledge work analysis to educational settings. The authors then go on to propose a set of application scenarios and hypotheses; discussing the potential and limitations of Web 2.0.
The authors argue that the collaborative nature of Web2.0 applications naturallyprovokes awide range of innovative possibilities for educationalinstitutions, and that in practice this is being realised not just by individual instructors using Web 2.0 tools in their curricula, but also by integration efforts.
However, the paper also acknowledges the practical limitations where for instance applications and their functionalities of Web 2.0 might fit the objectives of educational institutions, but it is often challenging to convey Web 2.0’s essentialattributes such as trust, and openness intoexisting institutional structures.
The paper also argues that exploiting Web 2.0 applicationsfor the organisation often leads to defining objectives and consequently imposes structure, compromising the very essence of Web 2.0. The ultimate challenge, as argued by the authors, lies not in identifying appropriate use-cases and positioningapplications, but rather in maintaining the essence Web 2.0. As such the authors insist that withoutopenness, voluntariness, trust, and self-organisation; the very essence of Web 2.0., applications will just not work.
SCHROTH, C. and JANNER, T., 2007. Web 2.0 and SOA: Converging Concepts Enabling the Internet of Services. IT Professional, June 2007, May|June 2007, vol. 9, no. 3 [viewed April 25, 2011], pp. 36-41. Available from: http://www.computer.org/portal/web/buildyourcareer/fa008 ISSN 1520-9202.
In this article, the authors provide a fairly systematic examination of Web 2.0 and Service Oriented Architecture (SOA) fundamental concepts and in the process contrast these two to paint a vivid picture of an emerging“Internet of Services (IoS)” that is practically incorporating the best of both.
While acknowledging the existing divergent viewpoints as to both the parallel and complementary natures of the SOA and Web 2.0, this article investigates the two paradigms; noting the similarities and parallelsbetween them, as well as their respective uses, from a business and technological standpoint.
The authors lay the foundation of their arguments by first establishing and adopting the widely accepted conceptual definitions of SOA and Web 2.0. The authors then methodically perform a comparative analysis of the two concepts by drawing from practical research on various use-cases and case studies of their respective applications. Seven major components of a business model framework adapted from the use-case studies are applied in structuring the analysis. Based on these components, the authors argue that the Web 2.0 applications and the SOA use-cases may be differentiated or classified respectively. The seven components of the business model framework are proposed as criteria for a thorough comparison between Web2.0 and SOA. Apart from identifying possible alternative concepts in Web2.0 and SOA, the paper actively and thoroughly demonstrates the importance and even necessity of a complementary integration of the two concepts in order to leverage their strengths and thus realise a fairly superior concept of an Internet-of-Services in practice.
SHUEN, A., 2008. Web 2.0: A Strategy Guide Business Thinking and Trategies Behind Successful Web 2.0 Implementations. O'Reilly Media, Inc ISBN 0596529961, 9780596529963.
This publication offers fairly practical discussions on the critical aspect of how Web2.0 may be employed for the benefit of modern business. The guide distinguishes Web2.0 from its history and well as from it possible alternatives by explaining how its features may be used to achieve business objectivesin the modern business environment.
This publication on business strategy draws from practical examples of a range of businesses which have succeeded in creating innovative opportunities on the Web. The examples studied in the book focus on demonstrating the impact of the Web2.0 concept technologies. The guide emphasises that the business application of Web2.0 consist of crafting accessible collaborative platforms online where interested individuals vicariously gather online to share and express themselves. In such virtual gathering contexts, as the author argues, the individuals or customers would naturally be involved in actively contributing to and providing the building blocks for the site.
The author discusses examples of Web 2.0 business implementations such as Flickr, a user-driven business model, which creates value for itself by relying on the users to create value for themselves on their own”. The book also examines Google’s business model of free internet search and the inherent potential business opportunities. In addition, the impact of social networks such as Facebook on modern businesses, and business approach of web businesses like Amazon are also discussed.
Shuen, through this book, actively demonstratesthe practicalbusiness models and innovations that may be derived from Web 2.0applications and their integration into modern business and society.